Words List

This is a Pennsylvania Dutch dictionary with words and phrases used by native speakers.

Some older Deitsh words found in The Heilich Shrift (Bible) or the dictionary are no longer as commonly used among native speakers.

There are many dialects of Pennsylvania Dutch, and some words may vary between different areas, families, and communities.

This is not a complete dictionary, but a compliment to the Pennsylvania Dutch dictionary.

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Words of the Week

Always working/busy adj = shaffich (busy and always going; someone known as hard working, but not necessarily known for quality.)
See is shaffich.

Worker noun = da shaffah (someone who works; not necessarily mentioning their attitude or effort.)
Eah is en shaffah an di factory.

📰 Latest Lesson Guides
    🆕 Newly Added Words
    • rishta verb = prepare (the table)
    • openly adv = fanna rumm
    • secretly adv = hinna rumm
    • branch noun (off the tree) = di hekk
    • branch noun (on the tree) = da nasht
    • earned adj = fadeend
    • rather = leevah
    • to prep = zu or ditzu (often pronounced d’zu, da’zu)
    • Spiritual Gems (midweek meeting part) = Spiritual Gems Keshtlichi Sacha
    • fun adj / good = fitt
    • crooked adj = shep
    • really = hatt (for emphasis)
    • tricked adj = getrikt (as in fooled)
    • sluggish adj = shtokkich (slow-going, slow-moving, slow to change)
    • full adj = foll (containing a lot of something)
    • full adj = satt (to be full and statisfied with food)
    • trusted adj = getrost
    • patience noun = patience or geduld (less common)

Pennsylvania Dutch Dictionary


Abbreviated Watchtower Study noun = Katzah Shtoddi Funn Da Vatshtavvah

About adv = baut (as in nearly or almost)
Miah sinn baut datt.

About prep (as in concerning or in regard to) (See also prepositions lesson guide)

  • about prep = veyyich (before a noun or pronoun; in the middle of a sentence)
    Miah zayla shvetza veyyich dei grades.
    Vass veyyich dich?
  • about (it) prep = diveyya (at the end of a sentence or thought when there’s no noun or pronoun after it)
    Vass zayla miah shvetza diveyya in deah article?
    Sell is vass ich am sawwa binn diveyya.
    Vass kenna miah du diveyya?

Above all = ovvich alles

Accept verb = eksepta

  • (ich) eksept
  • (eah/see/es) eksept
  • (miah) eksepta
  • (si) eksepta
  • Accepted verb = eksept past tense

Acceptable adj = acceptable
Sell is acceptable.

Access verb = aeksessa
Miah zayla’s information aeksessa.

Act verb = aekta (not ohshikka)

  • Acted verb = gaekt past tense

Acted out adj = ausgaekt
Ich gleich awl di talks un sacha es ausgaekt vadda.

Action noun = es aekshin

  • Actions noun = di aekshins plural

Actually = aekshli

Advice noun = es advice

Affect verb = afekta

  • Affected verb = afekt past tense

Affected adj = afekt
Vi mecht ma afekt sei vann em sei job tshaynsht?

(see Language Lesson)

  1. After (without a mention of when) = noch
    (See also another and still)
  2. After (following right after / immediately or next) = nohch

(this) Afternoon = dinochmidawk

Afterword = nochdihand

Age noun = di eld
Si sinn baut di saym eld.

Agree verb = agreeya

  • (ich) agree
  • (du) agreesht
  • (eah/see/es) agreet
  • (miah) agreeya
  • (diah) agreeyet
  • (si) agreeya
  • Agreed verb = agreet past tense

Allowed = daufa (commonly used in general conversation)

  • Allowed = alawbt (in reference to commands or laws)

Amazing adj

  • amazing (with neu nouns)
    ’Sis amazing vi ald da gaul is!
  • amaysingi (with f and pl nouns)

Amish noun = di Amishi (as in, the people who are Amish)
Daviess County Amishi sinn known fa iahra Southern twang.

and so on phrase = un so veidah (as in etc, etc)

Animals noun = di animals (not diahra)

Angel noun = da engel

  • Angels noun = di engel plural (not engla)

Another = noch
Sell is noch en reesin es miah shaffa free mieyets.

Answer noun = da ensah

  • Answers noun = di ensahs plural

Answer verb = ensahra

  • (ich) ensah
  • (eah/see/es) ensaht
  • (miah) ensahra
  • (si) ensahra
  • Answered verb = gensaht past tense

Antique noun = da antique

Anymore adv = may (any longer, at the present; especially when talking about now verses in the past) (Compare with no longer (nimmi))
Ich binn nau zu ald un kann baut nix du may.
Miah henn di train fafayld un ’sis nix es miah du kenna may.
Vass kann ich du? Nix nau may. Alles is faddich.

Words anymore (may) and no longer (nimmi) mean about the same. The difference is: nimmi goes along with a verb; may can be used by itself (usually at the end of a sentence).

Apply verb = apleiya

  • (ich) apleiy
  • (du) apleiysht
  • (eah/see/es) apleiyt
  • (miah) apleiya
  • (diah) apleiyet
  • (si) apleiya

Appreciate verb = apreeshayda

  • (ich) apreeshayt
  • (du) apreeshaysht
  • (eah/see) apreeshayt (can also be used with ‘s or es when referring to an unmarried girl)
  • (miah) apreeshayda
  • (diah) appreeshaydet
  • (si) apreeshayda
  • Appreciated verb = apreeshayt past tense

Area noun = di area

Argue verb

  • argyoowa
    Ich zayl nett argyoowa mitt dich.
  • maula
    Even vann diah bays sind, boviahret hatt fa nett shteahra maula.

Argument noun = da argument
en grohsah argument

Article noun = da article

Ask verb = frohwa (see also question verb)
Miah frohwa dich fa ohhalda may lanna veyyich sell.

  • (ich) frohk
  • (du) frohksht
  • (eah/see/es) frohkt
  • (miah) frohwa
  • (diah) frohwet
  • (si) frohwa
  • Asked verb = kfrohkt past tense

Asked adj = kfrohkt

At = an

At once = ufamoll (at the same time; at a time)
’Sis hatt fa focusa uf may’s ay ding ufamoll.
Awl ufamoll hott alles getshaynsht.
Nemm ay dawk ufamoll.

Ate verb (past tense of eat)

  1. gessa (what a human did)
  2. kfressa (what an animal did)

Ate up verb = ufkfressa past tense

Attack noun = attack

Attacked adj = attacked

Attitude noun = da attitude

Available adj = available

Awake! (magazine) = Ufvekka!



  1. back noun = da bukkel (as part of body)
  2. back adv = zrikk (as in direction)
  3. back adj = hinna (as in location)

Baptized adj = gedawft (use with a form of sei or vadda)
Vass setsht du denka diveyya eb gedawft vatsht?

Based verb = gebayst past tense
Eah hott sei discussions uf facts gebayst.

Based adj = gebayst
Di bichah sinn gebayst uf medical research.

Bear verb = shtenda (as in to handle or stand a situation)
Ich binn so hungahrich es ich’s baut nett shtenda kann.

Beat verb = beeda (as in to win at something; game, race, etc or have success over someone or something)
Ich zayl dich beeda.

  • Beat verb = gebodda past tense
    Ich habb dich gebodda!

Because = koss (more common)

  • because (less common)

Beehive noun = eema-haus

Before = eb (in time or order, but not necessarily about the past) (Compare with previously)
Miah zayla essa eb sell.

Beforehand = ebdihand (“in advance”, “ahead of time”)
Favass sett ma en list macha ebdihand vann ma zu da shtoah gayt?

Belief noun = da glawva (a person’s faith, beliefs, or religion)
Vi kann ich da recht glawva finna?
Mach dei glawva shteikah.

Believe verb = glawva (as in to trust something as true, or to soften a statement)
Ich kann’s nett glawva!
Si zayla da gans dawk bleiva, glawb ich. (See note)
Vass maynd’s fa convinced sei funn vass ma glawbt?

Instead of appearing to demand that what they say is completely accurate, native speakers may put “glawb ich” at the end of a sentence (or “Ich glawb” / “Glawb” at the start) to soften a statement. This is similar to putting “I think” or “I believe” at the end of a statement in English. The words “glawb ich” can also be combined into a single word, glavvich; similar to habb ich / havvich.

Glawb’s voah geshtah.
Mei eldra sinn 70 dess yoah, glavvich.

Beneath it / under it = unna droh
Gukk an di piktahs un vass’s sawkt unna droh.

Benefits noun = di benefits

Benefit verb

  • benefit verb (with singular nouns and pronouns)
    • (ich) benefit
    • (eah/see/es) benefit
  • bennafida verb (with plural nouns and pronouns)
    Miah bennafida funn dei shayni vadda.
  • Benefited verb = benefit past tense
    Vi hott si benefit funn da program?

(be of) Benefit verb = badda (as in to be of benefit, aid or help)
Ich habb da Johnny sei hoot bei gebrocht. Es batt een nix koss eah is nett dihaym.

Ich habb hatt boviahra, avvah es batt nix.

  • (eah/see/es) batt
  • (miah) badda
  • (si) badda

Beside = nayvich (physically next to something)
Da nei bohm is geblanst nayvich’s haus.

Better adj

  • bessah (used alone or with neuter nouns)
    Zayla sacha selayva bessah vadda?
  • bessahrah (used with m nouns)
    ’Sis en bessahrah vayk fa sell lanna.
  • bessahri (used with f nouns)
    Is dess en bessahri zeit fa dich kawla?

Better (one) noun = bessahrah
Ich binn en teacher avvah du bisht en bessahrah.

Better (thing) noun = bessahs (a better thing. Note the -s at the end of bessah)
Miah kenna shuah sei es ebbes bessahs kumma is.

Bible Study noun = da Bivvel Shtoddi

Bible Talk noun = da Bivvel Talk (most commonly when referring to a public talk)

Bird noun = es birdi (common) / da fohl (less common)

  • Birds noun = di birdis plural (common) / di feyyel plural (less common)

Bit noun = es gebiss (steel part of bridle that goes in an animal’s mouth)

Blame verb = blayma

Bless verb = blessa

Blessed adj = geblest
Miah sinn geblest.

Blessings noun = di blessings

Boo-boo noun = atzi (an ouchy; used for pain with very small children)

Booked adj = beshteld (See also scheduled (adj)) (Technically a borrowed German word, but often used in print when talking about upcoming events.)
Da class is beshteld alli Samshdawk.

Boot noun = da shtiffel

  • Boots noun = di shtiffel plural

Bothered verb = gebaddaht past tense

Bowl (small) noun = di shisli

Bowl (large bowl) noun = di shissel (serving bowl or large mixing bowl)

Branch noun

  1. Branch (off the tree) = di hekk
    • Branches (off the tree) = di hekka plural
  2. Branch (on the tree) = da nasht
    • Branches (on the tree) = di nesht plural

Brave adj = brayf

Bridle noun = da zohm (animal’s headgear; usually containing the bit and reins)

Bright adj

  • breiyt (with a neu noun)
  • breiyti (with f and pl nouns)
  • breiytah (with a m noun)

Buggy noun = es buggy

Built adj = gebaut
Si sinn gebaut mitt hols.

Busy adj = bissi

Busier = bissiyah


Calm adj = kawm (See also still (quiet))

Caption noun = vass’s sawkt unna droh (lit: what is says under it)
Gukk an di piktahs un vass’s sawkt unna droh.

Cards noun = di koada plural
Ich kann baut nett voahra fa koada shpeela.

Carve out / chip out verb = raus tshibba

Cause verb = kawsa

Certain adj:

  • sirten (with neu nouns)
  • sirtendi (with f nouns)
  • sirtendah (with m nouns)

Challenges noun = di challenges plural

Chance noun = di chance

Change noun = da tshaynsh

  • Changes noun = di tshaynshes plural

Change verb = tshaynsha

  • (ich) tshaynsh
  • (du) tshaynsht
  • (eah/see/es) tshaynsht
  • (miah) tshaynsha
  • (diah) tshaynshet
  • (si) tshaynsha
  • Changed verb = getshaynsht past tense

Chapter noun = da chapter

  • Chapters noun = di chapters plural

Check verb = tshekka

Chew verb = tshawwa

Chip out / carve out verb = raus tshibba

Choice noun = da choice

  • Choices noun = di choices plural

Choose verb = tshoosa

  • (ich) tshoos
  • (miah) tshoosa
  • (diah) tshooset
  • (si) tshoosa
  • Chose verb = getshoost past tense

Choose from verb = raus laysa (pick out; select from)
Ich habb di fauli aebbeahra raus laysa.

  • Chose from verb = raus glaysa past tense

Christians noun = di Christians plural (more common)
Veah sinn rechti Christians?

  • Christians noun = di Grishta-leit plural (less common)

Church rules noun = di adninga / di adlinga plural

Clear adj = clear (not kliah)

  • Clearly adj = clearly

Close verb = zu macha (opposite of open)
(Note: These work together but do not have to be right next to each other in the sentence)
Mach di deah zu.
Ich zayl di deah zu macha.

Close adj:

  • klohsi (used with f and pl nouns)
    klohsi friends
  • klohsah (used with m nouns)
    en klohsah friend

Closed adj = zu gmacht
’S buch is zu gmacht.

Color noun = da kollah

  • Colors noun = di kollahs plural
    Di blettah funn di baym sinn am kollahs tshaynsha.

Collect verb = kalekta | kollekta

Come Up verb = ufkumma (as in to occur or come to attention)
Shpendet zeit shvetza mitt eiyah kinnah, nett yusht vann problems ufkumma.

Comfort noun = kamfirt

Comfort verb = kamfirta

  • (eah/see/es) kamfirt
  • (miah) kamfirta
  • (si) kamfirta

Comforting adj = kamfirting

Coming together phrase = am zammah kumma (progress is being made)
Alles is am zammah kumma.

Common adj = common (more common)

  • kommini (with f and pl nouns) (less common)

Compare verb = kamperra

Congregation noun = di congregation

Content adj = zufridda
Ich binn zufridda mitt vass ich habb.

Continue verb = ohhalda

  • Continued verb = ohkalda past tense

Control noun = kantrohl

Control verb = kantrohla

  • (eah/see/es) kantrohld
  • (miah) kantrohla
  • (si) kantrohla
  • Controlled verb = kantrohld past tense

Convention noun = di convention

Cooperate verb = koahberayda

Copy noun = kabbi

  • Copies noun = di kabbis plural

Copy verb = kabbiya

Correct adj = recht

Correct verb = korekta

Cost noun = di kosht

Counsel noun = es counsel

Counter noun = da counter

Couple noun = di couple (as in married. See also married people.)

Couple adj = poah (as in amount; also a few)

Courage noun = da courage

Crooked adj = shep

Cut verb = shneida (often with scissors. Never used when talking about wood; use saw (verb) instead.)
— compare with saw (verb) and shpalda (verb)
Si sinn di rekk shneida.
Ich muss mei hoah shneida.


Dangerous adj = kfeahlich
’Sis kfeahlich fa lawfa inna blatz’s dunkel is unni en licht.

Daughter noun = es maydel / ’s maydel (common)

  • Daughters noun = di mayt plural

Day noun = da dawk

Day adj = dawk (as in daylight, daytime)
Ich zayl’s du veil’s dawk is.

Day after tomorrow = ivvah meiya (See also Times of Day)

Day before yesterday = foah geshtah (See also Times of Day)

Dead noun = di dohda (common, as a group)
Kenna di dohda aekshli viddah layva?

Dead adj = doht (as in condition, used with form of sei — not to be confused with da doht)

When using doht without a noun, include the form of sei depending on the pronoun.
Vann du bisht doht
Da giant is doht uf da bodda kfalla!

  • dohdi adj (with f or pl nouns)
    Di dohdi animals.

Deal verb = deela (to endure or handle; often used along with mitt)

  • (ich) deel
  • (miah) deela
  • (si) deela
  • Dealed verb = gedeelt past tense

Death noun = da doht (common)
Gott hast da doht; eah gukk’s oh vi en enemy.

  • shtauves noun (used in Bible, but less common)

Decide verb = diseiyda

  • (du) deseiytsht
  • (eah/see/es) diseiyt
  • (miah) diseiyda
  • (diah) diseiydet
  • (si) diseiyda
  • Decided verb = diseiyt past tense

Decision noun = da decision
Vass zayld helfa fa en goodah decision macha?

  • Decisions noun = di decisions plural

Dedicate (oneself) verb = layva fa Jehova (personally deciding to live for God, done before becoming baptized; lit: living for Jehovah)

Deep adj = deef

  • deefi adj (with f nouns)

Deeper adj

  • deefah (with neu and m nouns)
  • deefahri (with f and pl nouns)

Delete verb = dileeda

Deliberately adv = poahbes (Not to be confused with the purpose or desire (noun) of something.)(See also on purpose)
Ich habb nett poahbes.

Depend verb = dipenda

Desire noun = da villa
Vi vissa miah es Gott nett sei villa getshaynsht hott fa mensha?

Destroy verb = distroiya

  • (miah) distroiya
  • (si) distroiya
  • Destroyed verb = distroit past tense
    Da hund hott da shoo distroit.

Destroyed adj = distroit (usually accompanied by sei or vadda)
Di shtatt zayld distroit vadda bei da shtoahm.

Devour verb = fressa (see also animals eat)
Kaeffahra un termites fressa di baym un’s hols.

Dictionary noun = di dictionary

Die verb = shtauva

  • Died verb = kshtauva past tense

Difference noun = da diffans (not da unnahshitt)

Different adj:

  • diffand (with neu nouns)
  • diffandi (with f nouns)
  • diffandah (with m nouns)

Direction noun = es direction (as in guidance or instructions)
Miah sedda’s direction trosta funn unsah eldra.

Discipline noun = dissaplin
Dissaplin veist leevi.

Discipline verb = dissaplind

  • Disciplined verb = dissaplind past tense (common) | gedissaplind past tense (less common)
    Vi hott da teacher ’s Becky dissaplind?
    Vass kenna miah lanna funn vi eldra gedissaplind henn?

Disciplined adj = dissaplind (often with sei or vadda)
Vi doon samm aekta vann si dissaplind vadda bei iahra eldra?

Disease noun

  1. di disease (common)
  2. di granket (still often used)

Distract verb = distraekta

Divide verb = diveiyda

  • (miah) diveiyda
  • (si) diveiyda

Donation noun = dohnayshin

  • Donations noun = di dohnayshins plural

Donation adj = dohnayshin
dohnayshin boxa

Door noun = di deah

  • Doors noun = di deahra plural

Door (large) noun = es doah (a large door or gate)

  • Doors (large) noun = di doahra plural (see also gates)

Doubts noun = di doubts plural
Ich kann dei questions ensahra vann du doubts hosht.

Doubt verb = dowda | zveifla

Download verb = daunlohda (see other Technology Words)

Draw closer verb = naychah kumma (as in, to strengthen or deepen a relationship with someone)
Vi kann ma naychah kumma zu anri?

Dress verb = ohdu (as in, to put on (a clothing item), or to get dressed) (See also put on (clothes))
Miah missa obedient sei fa en mask ohdu.

  • (miah) ohdu
  • (si) ohdu
  • Dressed verb = Ohgedu past tense
    Ich habb mei rokk ohgedu.

Dress verb = dressa (as in, to dress in a certain way.)
Miah gevva praise zu Gott bei vi shay es miah dressa.

  • (miah) dressa
  • (si) dressa
  • Dressed verb = gedrest past tense (See also put on past tense)
    Hosht du gedrest fa di hochtzich?

Dressed adj = gedrest (use with a form of sei or vadda)
Diah sind shay gedrest heit.

Dress up verb = ufdressa

Dried up verb = ufgedrikkeld past tense

Drive around verb = rumm foahra


Earned verb = fadeend past tense

Earned adj = fadeend

Earthquake noun = da earthquake

Easy = eesi

  • Easier = eesiyah

Eat verb

      Eat = fressa (animals; or jokingly when a person eats like an animal) (See also devour)
      Da beah frest di fish.
      Da Gordon un da Andy fressa’s sees velshkann.
      1. Ate verb = kfressa (animals) past tense
    1. Eat = essa (humans)
      Di Becky un di Maria essa iahra middawk.
      1. Ate verb = gessa (humans) past tense

Elder noun = da elder (in congregation)

  • Elders noun = di elders (in congregation)

Encourage verb = enkiritsha

Enemy noun = da enemy (not feind)

  • Enemies noun = di enemies plural (not feinda)

Enforce verb = enforsa

Enjoy verb = enjoya

  • (eah/see/es) enjoyt
  • (miah) enjoya
  • (diah) enjoyet
  • (si) enjoya
  • Enjoyed verb = enjoyt past tense

etc phrase = un so veidah (and so forth; and so on)

Every once in a while phrase = alli-gebott
Alli-gebott setsht du dei teiyahs inshpekta fa shuah macha es si in goot shape sinn.

(this) Evening = dinohvet (See also Times of day)

Everyone pro = alli ebbah

Verbs that go with alli ebbah are conjugated for he/she/it — not they.
Alli ebbah is am goot du.

Everything pro = alles

Verbs that go with alles are conjugated for he/she/it — not they.

Everything keeps changing phrase = Alles hald on tshaynsha.

Everywhere = alli-vo

Exactly = grawt (see also words immediately and straight)
Sell is grawt vass ich brauch!

Example noun = da example (not foahbild)

  • Examples noun = di examples plural

Expect verb = ekshpekta

Explain verb = ekshplayna

  • (ich) ekshplayn
  • (eah/see/es) ekshplaynd
  • (miah) ekshplayna
  • (diah) ekshplaynet
  • (si) ekshplayna
  • Explained verb = ekshplaynd past tense

Explain verb = auslayya (literally lay it out)

  • (ich) auslayk
  • (du) auslayksht
  • (eah/see/es) auslaykt
  • (miah) auslayya
  • (diah) auslayyet
  • (si) auslayya
  • Explained verb = ausglaykt past tense

Extract verb = ekstraekta


Face verb = faysa

Fair adj = feah (reasonable and just)

Faithful adj:

  • faythfel (with n nouns)
    Eah voah faythfel even vann
  • faythfeli (with f or pl nouns)
    faythfeli examples
    selli es faythfeli

The Faithful and Discreet Slave noun = Di Faythfel Slave Mitt Veisheit

Family noun = di family

Family Worship = Family-Zeit Fa Jehova

Far adj = veit
Vass henn miah gland so veit?
Even vann’s veit is fa gay, doon miah alsnoch reklah zammah kumma.

Far off adj = veit ab
Miah gayn even zu areas es veit ab sinn.

Feelings noun = di feelings (not kfeelah) (opinions or emotions)

Fell verb = kfalla past tense
(Even though it’s past tense, use with a form of sei.)
Da bohm is nunnah kfalla.

Fetch verb = hohla (to get or retreive something or someone)
Ich zayld een hohla.

  • (ich) hohl
  • (eah/see/es) hohld
  • (miah) hohla
  • (si) hohla
  • Fetched verb = kohld past tense

Fewer adj = vennichah

Field service noun = di ministry (not feld deensht)

Figure out verb = aus fikkahra

Fill out verb = ausfilla

Find out verb = ausfinna

  • Found out verb = auskfunna past tense

Finish verb = faddich macha (conjugate macha)
(Note: Both words work together but do not have to be right next to each other in the sentence.)
Macht da lesson faddich.

  • Finished verb = faddich gmacht past tense
    Du da dawk nei vann da lesson faddich gmacht hosht.

First (see also language lesson Eahsht vs S’eahsht vs Seahsht)

  • First adj = eahsht (with nouns)
    Gukket da eahsht paragraph.
  • First adj = ’s eahsht (with singular neuter nouns)
    (Note: The es often is shortened to ’s and often gets pronounced together with eahsht. You will be most likely to hear it at the start of a sentence.)
    ’S eahsht moll es ich do voah, habb ich dich kolfa’s haus butza.
  • First adv = seahsht (with verbs)
    Miah missa seahsht lanna vi.

Fisherman noun = da fishah

  • Fishermen noun = di fishah plural
    Ich habb zvay fishah ksenna geshtah.

Fixed verb = kfixt past tense

Fixed adj = kfixt

Flake noun = da flokka

  • Flakes noun = di flekka plural
    ’Sis am shnayya un di flekka sinn grohs.

Flat adj = flaett
Si sinn uf’s flaett dach funn iahra haus.

The Flood noun = di Sindfloot

Foggy adj (See post nevlich and dufftich)

  1. nevlich (when speaking about the weather)
    ’Sis gans nevlich dimeiya.
  2. dufftich (as in, fogged up; glasses, windows, etc)
    Mei brain is dufftich dimeiya.

Follow verb = fallohwa

Follow (an example) verb = nohch kumma (to follow after someone and do what they did)
Sei foos-dabba nohch kumma.

Followers noun = di followers plural

For = fa

For other uses for the word fa, see also the dictionary and the words To and Kind of for additional meanings.

For (it) = difoah (usually used when putting for at the end of a thought or sentence) (Compare with previously)
Veah is da boi gmacht difoah?

Forgetful adj = fagesslich

Footsteps / Footprints noun = di foos-dabba plural

Force verb = forsa
Miah kenna nett leit forsa fa ebbes du es miah vella.

Forenoon = fammidawk (See also Times of day)

Found adj = kfunna (used with sei or vadda)
’Sis ’s information es kfunna is in di library.

Free adj = free (not frei)
Sell is da vayk es miah free sei kenna.

Freedom noun = da freedom

Friend noun = da friend (not freind)

Friendship noun = da friendship

From prep (See Prepositions lesson guide)

  • from = funn (to introduce a noun; most common)
  • from = difunn (at the end of sentence or thought)

Frosty adj = frushtich

Fulfill verb = folfilla

  • Fulfilled verb = folfild past tense

Fulfilled adj = folfild (often with sei or vadda)


  1. Full adj = foll (to contain a lot of something)
    Sellah shtoah is foll mitt antiques.
  2. Full adj = satt (to be full and satisfied after eating)
    Sell voah samm goot ess-sach! Nau binn ich satt.

Fun noun

  1. fann
  2. kshposs (something really or very fun)
    Miah henn kshposs katt geshtah!

Fun adj

  1. fann
  2. fitt (see also good)
    Sell voah fitt!

Funeral noun = da leicht

Future noun = da future


Gate noun = es doah (or large door)

  • Gate noun = di doahra plural

Get ahold of verb = hohld greeya funn (to contact)

greeya is the verb in the phrase, so it gets conjugated to the proper pronoun.
Sell’s en eesiyah vayk fa hohld greeya funn uns.

Get rid of (something) phrase = ritt vadda

Glad adj = froh

Go on verb = on gay / on (shorten version)
Bisht du reddi fa on?

Good = goot

  • Really good = adlich goot | reeli goot
  • Pretty good = zimmlich goot

Good adj = fit (describing something)
Dess grumbeahra mush is fit!

Governed verb = gegoverned past tense

Governing Body noun = di Drubb es Foahgayt

Verbs that go with di Drubb es Foahgayt are conjugated for he/she/it — not they.

Government noun = da government (as in a general or modern-day government)
— compare kingdom

  • Governments noun = di governments plural

Great Crowd noun = di Grohs Drubb

Verbs that go with di Grohs Drubb are conjugated for he/she/it — not they.

The Great Tribulation noun = di grohs dreebsawl

Greedy adj = greedi

Grew up verb = ufgvaxa past tense (Use with a form of sei.)
Dess is vo ich ufgvaxa binn.

Grieve verb = greeva

Group noun = di drubb

Verbs that go with di drubb are conjugated for he/she/it — not they.

Grown up adj = ufgvaxa (use with sei or vadda)
Zayla dei kinnah goot bleiva vann si ufgvaxa sinn?

Guard verb = garda

Guide verb = geida

  • (eah/see/es) geit
  • (miah) geida
  • (si) geida
  • Guided verb = gegeid past tense

Guided adj = gegeid


Handle verb = haendla
(See also deela)

Happen verb = haebna

  • (eah/see/es) haebbend
  • Happened verb = kaebbend past tense

Happy adj = haebbi

Hard adj = hatt
(See also really (for emphasis))

Harder adj = haddah
Es voah haddah fa see.

Hardest adj = hatsht
Sell voah’s hatsht ding.

Harness noun = es ksha

Harvest verb = harvesta

Hassle noun = vattshaft
’Sis en vattshaft!

Hated verb = kast past tense
Da hund hott di katz kast.

Hated adj = kast (to be or become hated; used with forms of sei or vadda)
’Sis nett eesi vann du kast bisht.

Have I verb = havvich (combination of ‘habb ich’; used after time words)
Shpaydah, havvich en appointment.
Vann ich 18 voah, havvich en latt zeit kshpend shaffa.

Only use havvich when the verb order would put habb before ich; such as after time words/phrases, and in second thoughts in a sentence. Otherwise, just use ich habb.
Vass havvich gedu heit fa veisa es ich respekt habb fa anri?
Ich habb mei shoo faliahra.

It’s perfectly fine to just use habb ich instead of havvich. But havvich flows a little better when spoke.

Have the opinion or viewpoint verb = mayna (not used the same as mean (verb))
— See also view
’S mensht leit mayna es is.
Vann du maynsht es’s zu feel is fa deela mitt…

  • (ich) mayn
  • (du) maynsht
  • (eah/see/es) maynd
  • (miah) mayna
  • (diah) maynet
  • (si) mayna
  • Had the opinion or viewpoint verb = gmaynd past tense
    Ich habb gmaynd alli-ebbah voah feah am getreet vadda, avvah ich habb glei auskfunna sell is nett voah.

Headache noun = kobb vay

Health noun = health
Mei health is shlimmah un shlimmah vadda.

Health adj = health (with another noun)
Hosht du ennich health problems?

Healthy adj = ksund
Unsah kinnah sinn ksund.

Help noun = di hilf

Help verb = helfa

  • Helped verb = kolfa past tense

Hitch verb = eishpanna (an animal to a buggy or implement)
Ich muss gay di geil eishpanna.

  • Hitched verb = eikshpand past tense
    Ich habb da gaul eikshpand.

Hitched adj = eikshpand (used with forms of sei or vadda)
Da gaul is shund eikshpand.

Hold back verb = zrikk hayva (to keep from doing or saying something. Conjugate hayva based on the noun/pronoun)

Homes noun = di haymeda plural (not haymedah)

Honor noun = da honor

Humble adj = humble (not daymeedich)

Humility noun = humility (not daymoot)

Hurry! phrase = Dabbah! (as a command)


  1. Hurt noun = di shmatza (the pain you feel)
    Di dohda vissa nix so si kenna kenn shmatza shpiahra.
  2. Hurt verb = shmatza (to feel pain)
    • Hurt verb = kshmatzt past tense (to have felt pain in past)
  3. Hurt verb = vay du (to injure or cause pain)
    • Hurt verb = vay gedu past tense (to have injured or caused pain)


Idea noun = da idea (not eidi)

  • Ideas noun = di ideas plural

If = vann (as in, if this, then that; not to be confused with whether.) (See also Eb vs Vann language lesson)

Illustration noun = da illustration (as in an example or story used to teach) (See also parable)

Imitate verb = immatayda

  • (eah/see/es) immatayt
  • (miah) immatayda
  • (si) immatayda
  • (diah) immataydet
  • Imitated verb = immatayt past tense

Immediately adv

  1. bletzlich
  2. grawt (as in right away) (see also words exactly and straight)
    Gebt nett uf vann du nett grawt results saynsht.

Imperfect adj = impirfikti (with f nouns)

Important adj:

  • importand (with neu nouns)
  • importandi (with f and pl nouns)
  • importandah (with m nouns)

in a = inna (combination of in and en) (not innen)
Brenna inna feiyahrichi hell fa’immah is nett even feah in Gott sei awwa.

in the = im (combination when used with masculine or neuter nouns)

Include verb = inclooda

  • (ich) = incloot (also used in commands)
  • (miah) = inclooda
  • (si) = inclooda

Included adj = include
Vass alles is include in da job?

Including = including (as well as, in addition to)
including shlimm veddah, earthquakes, un sacha vi sell.

Inspect verb = inshpekta

Instead = in blatz (not imblatz)
In blatz funn sell, eah vill havva es miah layva enjoya.

Interested adj = innarest (often used with sei or vadda)

Interesting adj = innaresting

  • innarestingah (with m nouns)
  • innarestingi (with f and pl nouns)

Interfere verb = interfera

Internet noun = da internet

Interrupt verb = innarobda

Into / in = nei (usually grouped with a verb) (Compare with new)
Vass kann uns helfa fa nett nei gevva zu temptations?
Log nei.

Invited adj = kaysa (often with a form of sei or vadda)
Du bisht kaysa.

Involved adj = involved (often with sei)

Inward adj = nei-zuss (toward the inside, center, or interior)

Isn’t it? / is that not so? / right? = gell (used at end of a sentence as a confirmation of something)
Dei daett shaft mitt construction, gell?
Miah henn samm reeli shayni dawwa katt, gell?


Joy noun = da joy

Joyful adj = joyful

Judge verb = judga (no longer tshotsha)

Judged verb = gejudged past tense

Judged adj = gejudged (used with a form of sei or vadda)

Juice noun = di bree
abbel bree


  1. yusht
    Yusht vi en goodah daett es’s besht vill fa sei kinnah…
  2. so vi (literally, just like)
    Miah macha goot yoos funn modern technology so vi da internet.


Keep in mind (to continue remembering) verb = meind halda (See also remember)

Keep up with verb = ufhalda mitt
’Sis hatt fa ufhalda mitt alles es am gay is in di news.

Killed verb = doht gmacht (needs helper verb for whoever is doing the killing)

Kind of / Type of / Sort of = fa
Vass fa challenges hott di Barb katt?

For other uses for the word fa, see also the dictionary and the words For and To for additional meanings.

Kingdom noun
— compare government

  1. es reich (a kingdom in general)
  2. Gott Sei Reich (God’s Kingdom)

Kingdom Hall noun = da Fasamling Blatz

  • Kingdom Halls noun = di Fasamling Bletz plural

Kiss verb

  1. buss (pronounced like English word ‘bus’)
  2. kissa
  1. Kissed verb past tense:
    1. gebust past tense
    2. gekist past tense

Know verb

  1. know verb = vissa (to know information or a fact)
  2. know verb = kenna (to know or recognize a person) (not to be confused with can)
    • (ich) kenn
    • (du) kensht
    • (eah/see/es) kend
    • (miah) kenna
    • (diah) kennet
    • (si) kenna
    • gekend verb past tense


Language noun = di language

  • Languages noun = di languages plural

Last verb = laesta

Last night = geshtrohvet (See also Times of day)

Law noun = es gebott

  • Laws noun = di gebodda plural (not ksetz unless speaking about a set of laws. See Mosaic Law)

Leave verb = lossa (as in to leave an item behind)
Ich loss een en message.

  • Left verb = glost past tense
    Ich habb een en message glost.

Leave off verb = ablossa (as in not include)
Du kansht’s ablossa.

Leave open / leave up (to) (a decision) verb = uf lossa
Loss di doah uf. (as in open)
Ich zayld’s uf lossa zu dich. (as in choice)

  • Left open / left up (to) verb = uf glost past tense
    Di doah voah uf glost. (as in open)
    Ich habb’s uf glost zu een. (as in a decision)

Less adj = vennichah

Lesson noun = da lesson
In deah lesson, zayla miah lanna veyyich…

Let verb = lossa (see also leave)
Loss mich helfa!

Let someone know phrase = vissa lossa (as in to tell someone something)
Ich zayld si vissa lossa. (I will let them know.)
Ich voah nett haebbi diveyya un habb si vissa glost. (I was not happy about it and I let them know about it.)

vissa lossa can be used in a friendly way (let someone know something) or an unfriendly way (let them know it) depending on the context.

Conjugate lossa as needed.

Library noun = di library

Life noun = es layva (the life a person or animal possesses)
Unsah layva is simple.
Miah henn nett en pirfikt layva, avvah miah sinn haebbi.

  1. like verb (as in, to enjoy) = gleicha
  2. like (as in, similar) = vi

Likely adj = aebt

Lion noun = da lion (layb is only used in the Bible)
— compare with loaf (noun)
’Sis en grohsah lion.

Listen (to) verb = abheicha
— compare with obey (verb)
Eah abheicht zu dich.

  • Listened verb = abkeicht past tense
    Da Marlin hott abkeicht zu da warning.

Live verb

  1. live = layva (to exist) (not to be confused with life noun)
    Da vayk es miah layva
    Oh kaynich, layb fa’immah!
    Vi kansht du leevi veisa fa anri bei da vayk es du laybsht?
  2. live = voona (to dwell or reside somewhere)
    • (ich) voon
      Ich voon in Daviess county.
    • (du) voonsht
      Vo voonsht du?
    • (eah/see/es) voond
    • (miah) voona
      Miah voona do.
    • (diah) voonet
      Vo voonet diah?
    • (si) voona
    • lived verb = gvoond past tense (as in dwelled)
      Vi lang hend diah datt gvoond?

Loaf noun = da layb (as in bread)
— compare with lion (noun)
Ich habb en layb broht gebakka.
Miah henn fimf layb broht.

  1. When using layb along with a noun, it does not need funn (of). (See first example above)
  2. When talking about more than one loaf, you do not need to make layb plural. (See second example above)

Log in verb = log nei (see other Technology Words)

Lose verb = faliahra

  • (ich) faliah
  • (du) faliahsht
  • (eah/see/es) faliaht
  • (miah) faliahra
  • (diah) faliahret
  • (si) faliahra
  • Lost verb = faloahra past tense

Lost adj = faloahra (used with form of sei or vadda)
Miah sinn faloahra.

Lot (as in ‘a lot’ or many) = en latt
Vass hott da Shawn kolfa fa ohhalda en latt respect havva fa anri?

When using en latt, it does not need funn (of) after it.

Loud adj = laut
(Compare with sound (verb) and out loud)
Sellah hund is laut!

Love noun = di leevi

Loving adj:

  • loving (with neu nouns)
  • lovingi (with f or pl nouns)
  • lovingah (with m nouns)

Loyal adj = loyal (not shtandhaftich)


Made up verb = ufgmacht past tense

Made up adj = ufgmacht (often with sei)

Mail noun = di mail (as in, the post)
Ich zayl eich en breef shikka in di mail.

Main adj:

  • mayn (with neu nouns)
  • mayni (with f or pl nouns)
  • maynah (with m nouns)

Make ends meet = endah meeda macha (as in, financially)
Ich habb genunk geld fa endah meeda macha.

Map noun = di maeb

Married people noun = di keiyahri leit

Marriage noun = es keiyaht layva

Matters phrase

  1. it matters = es macht ebbes aus / ’s macht ebbes aus
  2. it doesn’t matter = es macht nix aus / ’s macht nix aus
  3. it doesn’t make a difference = es batt nix

Mattress noun = di mattress

Mean verb = mayna
— compare with to have the opinion (verb)
Sell’s vass ich mayn.

Meaning noun = di mayning
Sell gebt mei layva en rechti mayning.

Meditate verb = meddatayda

Meeting noun = di fasamling

  • Meetings noun = di fasamlinga plural

Meeting Parts

  • Unsah Ministry un Vi Miah Layva
  • 1st Treasures Funn di Bivvel
    • Spiritual Gems Keshtlichi Sacha
  • 2nd Fa Bessah Vadda in di Ministry
    • Starting a Conversation = En Conversation Shteahra
    • Following Up = Viddah Zrikk Gay
    • Making Disciples = Yingah Macha
    • Explaingin Your Beliefs = Dei Glawva Ekshplayna
  • 3rd Fa Layva vi Christians

Mention verb = menshind

Mentioned adj = gmenshind (often with sei)

Mess up verb = fadutza (to cause something to be out of order; scrambled)

  • Messed up verb = fadutzt past tense
    Vann ich kfalla binn, habb ich di papers fadutzt.

Messed up adj = fadutzt / fadutztich

Message noun = da message

(this) Mid-day = dimiddawk (See also Times of day)

Midweek meeting = deichdivoch fasamling

Might verb = mechta

  • (ich) mecht
  • (du) mechsht
  • (eah/see/es) mecht
  • (miah) mechta
  • (diah) mechtet
  • (si) mechta

Ministry Workbook (Life & Ministry Workbook) noun = es Ministry un Layva Fasamling Workbuch

Ministry noun = di ministry (not feld deensht) (See also preaching work noun)

Miss verb = fafayla

  • Missed verb = fafayld past tense

Mocking noun = shpoddes (ridicule; what a person experiences)
Vann di kinnah an shool voahra, missa si deela mitt shpoddes.

Mop verb = mabba

Morning = meiya (See also Times of day)

Move verb = moofa

Move verb = zeeya (as in to move residence)
Vann sinn si nei am zeeya?

  • Moved verb = gezohwa past tense (as in moved residence)


Nearly adv = baut (see also about)

Need verb (See also Need language lesson)

  • need (an item) = braucha
    Miah awl braucha encouragement grawt nau.
    Ich brauch en pencil.
  • need (to do something) = missa / sedda (as in, must / should)
    Miah missa sobbah essa.
    Si sedda middawk essa.


  • No = nay (only used to answer questions)
  • No / none = kenn (none, not any — used with a noun)
    kenn maemm
    kenn shtauves
  • No / none = kens (when used directly in front of funn)
    Kens funn si feels es si di leaders sinn.
  • Not = nett (not naett) (as in opposite of something)
  • Never = nee nett | selayva nett (See also Never language lesson)

Necessary = nohtvendich (not nohdvendich)

Neighbor noun = da nochbah

  • Neighbors noun = di nochbahra plural (not nochbra)

New Testament noun = es Neiy Teshtament

New World Translation noun = di New World Translation

New adj : (Compare with into/in)

  • neiy (with neuter nouns)
  • neiyah (with m nouns)
  • neiyi (with f nouns)

Newer adj = neiyah
Is deah neiyah es di anri?

Newest adj = neiysht

(last) Night = geshtrohvet (See also Times of day)

No longer adv = nimmi (used with a verb; Compare with anymore)
Mei bays is fabrocha un ich kann nimmi shpringa.

Words no longer (nimmi) and anymore (may) are similar. The main difference is: nimmi goes along with a verb; may can be used by itself (usually at the end of a sentence).

No one pro = nimmand (common)

Verbs that go with nimmand are conjugated for he/she/it — not they.
Nimmand vatt betzawld, avvah alli-ebbah grikt ess-sach un en blatz fa voona.

No one pro = kenni (as in not a single person/thing; often used by itself in reply and for emphasis)

Noisy adj = yachtich
Di boova sinn yachtich alli-moll es si Mt Dew henn.

None = kenn (none, not any — used with a noun)

  • None = kens (when used directly in front of funn)

Not yet. phrase = Nett noch / Noch nett
Ich voah yusht noch nett reddi fa tshaynshes macha in mei layva.

The phrase nett noch (or noch nett) can be used by itself as a sentence, or included as part of a sentence.

When used as part of a sentence, it’s usually noch nett. (See example above)

But when used by itself:

  • Nett noch tends to be positive/hopeful.
  • Noch nett tends to be used for something that the person speaking isn’t looking forward to., or when the speaker doesn’t really expect will happen.

Notice verb

  • (ich) nohdes (often used at the start of a sentence for a command)

Now days

  1. nau dawks
  2. heidich’s dawk

Nowhere = neiyetz

Number noun = da nambah

  • Numbers noun = di nambahs plural


Obey verb = heicha
— compare listen (verb)
Miah missa Gott heicha.

  • Obeyed verb = keicht past tense
    Si hott iahra maemm keicht.

Of them = funna
Samm funna henn parts missing.
Vels funna gleichsht’s besht?

Offer verb = offera

Often = oft (frequently; compare with oftentimes.)
Deah vayk is oft da vayk es miah gayn.

(more) Often = eftah
Sell haebbend eftah es difoah.

Oftentimes = als (usually connected with a verb. See also once; compare with oft)
’S vatt is als getrenslayt “veld”.

Old adj (as in age)

  • ald (with neuter nouns)
    ’S macht nix aus vi ald es du bisht.
  • aldah (with m nouns)
  • aldi (with f and plural nouns)

Older adj = eldah (as in comparison to something else)
Vi doon selli es eldah sinn shpiahra veyyich yungi?
Ich binn eldah heit es ich voah geshtah!
’Sis hatt fa eldah vadda.

  • eldahra (with m nouns)
    Shvetz mitt dei eldahra broodah diveyya.
  • eldri (with f and plural nouns)
    Eldri shveshtra braucha hilf.
    Shvetz mitt dei eldri shveshtah diveyya.

Oldest adj = eldsht

Once = als (at one time, oftentimes)
Leit henn vennichah leevi es si als katt henn.

Old (people) noun = di eldri plural
Vi kenna eldri un yingahri nannah helfa?

One (number) = ayn (See also ay, ayn, ayns, and vann language lesson)
Miah henn drei geil: zvay sinn brau, un ayn is shvatz.

One = ay (a single item) (See also ay, ayn, ayns, and vann language lesson)
Ay mann un ay fraw.

One (of) = ayns (one of several; always used with funn) (See also ay, ayn, ayns, and vann language lesson)
Sell is ayns funn di reesins es miah shaffa missa.

One pro = vann (when refering to another person)

When used as a pronoun, vann will use da or di right in front of it — depending on whether the noun being replaced is masculine or feminine.
Da Andy is da vann es ‘s haus gebaut hott.
Di Donna is di vann es ‘s broht gmacht hott.

  • Ones pro = di vans plural (as in other people)

Oneself pro = em (more personal. See also us)

Open verb = uf macha (opposite of close)
Mach dei maul uf.
Ich zayl di deah uf macha.

Openly adv = fanna rumm (opposite of secretly)

Opportunity noun = di gleyyaheit | di opportunity

Ouchy noun = atzi (a boo-boo; used for pain with very small children)


  • unsah (when talking to a group)
  • em sei (more personal; when having a conversation with someone)

(out) loud adj = laut
(with a verb, it often means out loud)
(See also loud and sound (verb))
Kansht du di shrift laut laysa?
Favass du ich nett laut laysa…

Own pro = ayknes
Uf unsah ayknes kenna miah nett acht gevva uf alles.

Own verb = aykna

  • (du) aykensht
  • (eah/see/es) aykend
  • (miah) aykna
  • (diah) ayknet
  • (si) aykna
  • Owned verb = gaykend past tense

Own adj:

  • aykni (with f and pl nouns)
  • ayknah (with m nouns)


Page noun = es paytsh

  • Pages noun = di paytshes plural

Paid adj = betzawld
Ich vatt nett betzawld koss ich binn en volunteer.

Pantry noun = di botri (place for storing food)

Parable noun = es gleichnis (as in a story used to teach; similar to an illustration)

Paragraph noun = da paragraph

Part noun = es part

Participate verb = participayda

Particular adj = patiklah

Past = fabei (as in direction)
Gay fabei. Si sinn nett dihaym.
’S nett en dawk’s fabei gayt…

Patience noun (a quality)

  1. patience
  2. geduld (less common outside of the Bible)

Patient adj (what someone is)

  1. patient
  2. geduldich

Patiently adv = patiently (how someone does something)
Ich binn am patiently voahra biss ich healthy binn.

Peace noun = peace (common)

  • fridda (less common)

Peaceful adj = peaceful (does not change for the noun it goes with)

Perfect adj:

  • pirfikt (with neu noun)
  • pirfiktah (with m noun)
  • pirfikti (with f nouns)

Perfection noun = pirfekshin

Person noun = da person

  • People noun = di leit plural

Pet verb = shtreicha (lit to stroke)
Shtreich nett da hund!

Phone noun = da phone

Phrase noun = da frays

Phrases noun = di frayses plural

Pick verb = pikka

  • (ich) pikk
  • (du) piksht
  • (miah) pikka
  • (si) pikka
  • Picked verb = gepikt past tense

Pick out verb = raus laysa (choose from; select from)
Ich habb di fauli aebbeahra raus laysa.

  • Picked out verb = raus glaysa past tense

Piled up adj = uf gepeild (used with a form of sei or vadda)
Di ksharra sinn uf gepeild.

Piled up verb = uf gepeild past tense
Miah henn di ksharra uf gepeild.

Pioneer noun = peiyneer

  • Pioneers noun = di peiyneers plural

Pioneer verb = peiyneera

Pity verb = davvahra (as in to show pity, compassion, mercy; one of the strongest feelings for someone who is suffering; always used along with a noun)
Please, davvah uns un helf uns!
Ich habb’s hawsli gedavvaht.

  • (ich) davvah
  • (du) davvahsht
  • (eah/see/es) davvaht
  • (miah) davvahra
  • (diah) davvahret
  • (si) davvahra
  • Pitied verb = gedavvaht past tense

Plain adj = playn

Plan noun = da plan

  • Plans noun = di plans plural

Plan verb = plenna

Please verb = pleesa

  • (ich) plees
  • (eah/see/es) pleest
  • (miah) pleesa
  • (si) pleesa

Pleasing adj = pleesing

Plug verb = pluga

  • Unplug it = unplug’s (as in a command)

Point noun = da point
Vass is da mayn point?

Position noun = da position

Post noun = da pohsta (as in a fence post)

Post verb = posta (as to mail something like a letter or post it to the internet)

Power noun = da power

Powerful adj = powerful

Practice verb = praektisa

Preach verb = breddicha

  • (ich) breddich
  • (du) breddichsht
  • (eah/see/es) breddicht
  • (miah) breddicha
  • (diah) breddichet
  • (si) breddicha
  • Preached verb = gebreddicht past tense

Preaching (work) noun = di ministry (as in the preaching work that we do) (not breddiches)
Unsah ministry is goot organized.

Prepare verb = reddi greeya (literally, get ready) (Conjugate greeya based on who is preparing)

Prepared adj = reddi (to be prepared (ready); used with sei or vadda)
Vass kann em helfa fa goot reddi sei fa di fasamlinga?

Prepare (the table) verb = rishta (as in to get the table ready for a meal)
’Sis zeit fa da dish rishta.
Risht da dish!

Pretty much = adlich

Previously = difoah (before now, earlier) (Compare with before and for it)
Ich habb sell nett keaht difoah!

Principle noun = da principle

Print verb = prinda

Printed adj = geprind
Kann ich en geprind kabbi greeya?

Privilege noun = da privilege

  • Privileges noun = di privileges plural

Problem noun = da problem

Promise noun = da promise

Promise verb = fashprecha

  • Promised verb = fashprocha past tense

Prophecy noun = da prophecy

  • Prophecies noun = di prophecies plural

Protect verb = protekta

Protection noun = protekshin

Proud adj = proud (not shtols)

Prove verb = proova

  • (eah/see/es) prooft
  • (miah) proova
  • (si) proova
  • Proved verb = geprooft past tense

Public Bible Discourse = Bivvel Talk fa Awl-Leit

Publication noun = da publication

Publications noun = di publications plural

Publish verb = poblisha

Published adj = gepoblisht
The Directory is gepoblisht baut alli zvay yoah.

Pulled out verb = raus gezohwa
Ich habb di veetz raus gezohwa.

(on) Purpose adj = poahbes (as in deliberately)
Ich habb nett poahbes.

Put verb = du (based on context)

  • (ich) du (also used in commands)
    Vi free dusht du eahpsa naus? / (EN: How early do you put peas out?)
    Vann ich blohi paint uf di vand du, zayld’s en diffans macha.
  • (du) dusht
  • (eah/see/es) dutt
  • (miah) doon
    Vann miah greeni paint uf di vand doon, zayld’s goot gukka.
  • (diah) doond
  • (si) doon
  • Put verb = gedu past tense
    Ich habb ebbes an eiyah deah gedu.

Put into verb = nei du (conjugate du to match the noun)
Du di zeit nei vann da job faddich gmacht hosht.

  • Put into verb = nei gedu past tense
    Da Menno hott en latt effort nei gedu fa en job greeya.

Put on verb = ohzeeya (for example clothes) (See also dress (verb))
Ich binn mei glaydah ohzeeya.

  • Put on verb = ohgezowwa past tense

Put up with verb = uf du mitt
Miah missa patiently uf du mitt unsah kinnah.


Question noun = da question

Question verb = frohwa (to ask) (see also ask)
Miah frohwa dich fa ohhalda may lanna veyyich sell.
Frohk da vann es di bichah shtoddit mitt dich.

Questioned verb = gequestioned past tense (to get answers or information from someone; for example in a courtroom setting)
Si henn mich gequestioned.

Quiet adj = shtill (see Shtill vs Alsnoch vs Noch vs Doch language lesson)

Quite a few = edlichi

Quoted verb = gekwoht past tense
Eah hott funn’s buch gekwoht.


Rain noun

  1. da reyya (most common)
  2. da raegga or da raegla (regional: Daviess County, Indiana)

Raise verb = uf zeeya (to raise children)

Raised adj = ufgezowwa (raised, as in children)

Rather = leevah
Ich dayt leevah
Leevah es releiya uf uns selvaht…

Reach verb = langa

Reacted verb = react
Vi henn’s mensht leit react zu deah message?

Reading noun = es layses

Reading verb = am laysa

Reader noun = da laysah

Ready adj = reddi
Bisht reddi? Vi reddi es ich vatt.

Real = recht (as in genuine)
recht joy finna

Realized verb = realized past tense

Really = reeli

Really = hatt (for emphasis; used along with a verb)
Eah hott hatt boviaht di shlisla finna.
Si hott hatt vella fa kumma.

Reason noun = da reesin

  • Reasons noun = di reesins plural

Recently = katzlich
Vass hott di Becky yusht katzlich gedu katt?

Recommended adj = rekkamend
Bichah, videos, un annah shtoft es rekkamend is.

Record verb = rekorda

Regular adj = reklah

Relatives noun = di freindshaft plural (relations/family)
Eah is unsah freindshaft. (as in one of our relatives)
’S mensht leit shteahra bei dee goodi sacha sheira mitt iahra friends adda freindshaft.

Rely verb = releiya
Miah missa releiya uf unsah eldra vann miah baybes sinn.

Remember verb = meinda
Ich meind nau.

Remember verb = meind halda (as in keep in mind / continue to remember)
Vass dutt ebbah inna race meind halda?

Reminded verb past tense

  • remind past tense
    Da Jon hott si remind es eah am kumma is dimeiya.
  • gegmohnd past tense
    Da Amos hott di Arabella droh gegmohnd es see en appointment hott.

Reminded adj = remind (use with form of sei or vadda)
Miah braucha remind vadda diveyya.

Repentant adj = recht sorry (use with form of sei or vadda)

Replace verb = replaysa

  • (miah) replaysa
  • (si) replaysa
  • Replaced verb = replayst past tense

Respect noun = da respekt

Report verb = riporda

Resurrect verb = resurrect (common)

Resurrection noun = da resurrection (common)

  • di uffashtayung noun (in the Bible or when referring specifically to Jesus’ resurrection)

Return visit = viddah zrikk gay | return visit

right? / isn’t it? / is that not so? = gell (used at end of sentence as a confirmation of something)
Dei daett shaft mitt construction, gell?
Miah henn samm reeli shayni dawwa katt, gell?

River noun = da revvah (not di revvah)

Rule verb = roola

Ruled adj = groold
’Sis di veesht veld’s groold is bei da Satan.

Ruler noun = da roolah (person with authority)

  • Rulers noun = di roolahs plural

Rules noun = di rools (guidelines set by someone in authority)

Run verb
(See also guides shpringa and shprenga and Figures of Speech: Walking and Running)

  1. Run verb = shpringa (to move; work)
    Di generator dutt shpringa.
    Miah shpringa alli meiya.
  2. Run verb = shprenga (to operate sometime like a piece of equipment)
    Ich kann di equipment shprenga.
    Du bisht dei maul am shprenga!


Sad adj = sad (not bedrohwa)
Zvay leit es reeli sad voahra.

Same pro = saym (as in similar or identical)
’Sis saym es sell.
Du bisht nett saym es see.

When used as a pronoun, saym does not need da or di in front of it.

Same adj:

  • saym (with neu nouns)
  • saymi (with f or pl nouns)
  • saymah (with m nouns)

Satisfy verb = saetisfeiya

Save verb = sayva

  • (miah) sayva
  • (si) sayva
  • Saved verb = ksayft past tense

Saved adj = ksayft (use with a form of sei or vadda)
Missa miah yusht glawva an da Jesus fa ksayft sei?

Saw verb = sayya (as in to cut up wood. Never use shneida when talking about cutting wood. Not the same as to split wood)
— compare with split (verb) and sow (verb)
Say’s hols.
Miah hols sayya fa unsah nochbah.

Schedule noun = da sketshel

Scheduled adj = beshteld (See also booked (adj)) (Technically a borrowed German word, but often used in print when talking about upcoming events.)
Da leicht is beshteld fa Samshdawk meiya.

Secretly adv = hinna rumm (opposite of openly)

Section noun = da section
Vass lanna ma funn deah section?

Select verb = selekta (pick from some options)

Select from verb = raus laysa (pick out; choose from)
Ich habb di fauli aebbeahra raus laysa.

  • Selected from verb = raus glaysa past tense


  • Self = selvaht
  • Himself/herself/itself = sich selvaht
  • Myself = mich selvaht
  • Oneself = em selvaht
  • Ourselves = uns selvaht
  • Themselves = si selvaht (si and selvaht are often separated in sentences)
    Si sinn selvaht ganga. (They went themselves.)
  • Yourself = dich selvaht
  • Yourselves = eich selvaht

Self-control noun = self-kantrohl

Send out verb = naus shikka

Sense = sense (not sens)
Dayt’s nett yusht sense macha?

Sentence noun = da sentence

Set straight verb = recht setza (to correct something or someone) (present/future) (conjugate setza to match the pronoun)

  • Set straight verb = recht ksetzt past tense

Set straight adj = recht ksetzt (to become corrected; used with sei or vadda)

Set up verb = ufsetza

Settled verb = kseddeld past tense

Shake up verb = fashidla
Du nett mei drink fashidla.

  • Shaken up verb = ufkshiddeld past tense
    Ich habb da drink ufkshiddeld.

Shaken up adj = ufkshiddeld (physically or emotionally; used with sei or vadda)
Miah sedda kawm bleiva un nett ufkshiddeld vadda bei vass anri du kenna.

Shaking noun = es shidles

Shame = shawt

Share verb = sherra (not sheira)

  • Shared verb = ksherd past tense

Ship verb = shibba

  • Shipped verb = kshibt past tense

Shipped adj = kshibt

Shortly before phrase = vennich eb
Vennich eb mei daett kshtauva is, hott eah ksawt…

Shut off verb = abshodda

Since = siddah

Single adj = single (as in not married)

Single adj = ay (as in a single item)
ay shtikk boi

Skin noun = di haut (not es haut)

Slave noun = di slave

Sled riding verb = shlidda foahra

Sling noun = di shling (as in a slingshot)

  • Slings noun = di shlinga plural

Sluggish adj = shtokkich (as in someone or something that’s slow-going, slow-moving, slow to change)
Deah gaul is so shloh un shtokkich!

Di kinnah sinn am kumma. Si sinn yusht shtokkich.

Smart adj = shmeaht

  • Smarter adj = shmeahdah

Snacks = noun di shnaeks

Sometimes = daylmohls or alsamohl or etmohl (varies with region and dialect)
Favass mecht’s daylmohls hatt sei…?
Miah henn feel leit assigned zu unsah group, avvah alsamohl, henn miah elf anri, es kumma funn diffandi bletz.

Somewhere = eiyetz
Du bisht am shaffa eiyetz es reeli laut is.

Son noun = da boo (common)

  • Son noun = da sohn (uncommon; unless used to refer to Jesus or in the Bible)

Song noun = da song (see also metaphorical gender on how to use with pronouns)
Ma gleicha da song. Eah is fann fa singa!

Soon = glei

Sort of / Kind of / Type of = fa
Vass fa challenges hott da Andy katt?

For other uses for the word fa, see also the dictionary and the words For and Kind of for additional meanings.

Sort verb = sorta

  • Sorted verb = ksort past tense

Sound verb = lauda
(Compare loud and out loud)

  • (eah/see/es) laut
    Sell laut vi en plan!
  • (miah) lauda
  • (si) lauda

Sovereignty noun = recht da roola

Special adj:

  • speshel (with neu nouns)
  • spesheli (with f or pl nouns)
  • speshelah (with m nouns)

Speed noun = da shpeet

Spelled adj = kshpeld (often with sei)
Mach shuah es awl vadda recht kshpeld sinn fa da test.

Split verb = shpalda (as in to split something up or cause a division. Commonly used when talking about using an ax to split wood. Not the same as to cut or saw wood.)
— compare with to saw (verb)
Ich muss hols shpalda.
Iahra gmay is shpalda.

Spoon noun = es leffel (not da leffel)
’S leffel is drekkich.

Stain noun = da shtayn
Sellah shtayn is roht.

Stale verb = ohzeyya (as in to draw moisture)

  • Stale verb = ohgezowwa past tense (as in turned stale)

Stale adj = ohgezowwa
’S broht is ohgezowwa.

Stand verb = shtenda (as in to bear or handle a situation)
Eah kann nett shtenda si sayna so hungahrich sei.

Stand verb = shtay (as in to stand on one’s feet)

Stands for verb = shtayt fa (as in symbolizes or means)
Di letters USA shtayt fa United States of America.

Start noun = da shteaht
Si henn en goodah shteaht katt.

Steak noun = di shtayk
Di shtayk shmakt reeli goot.

Still (See also Shtill vs Alsnoch vs Noch vs Doch language lesson)

  1. Still (as in be still, quiet, calm) = shtill
    Es is en zeit… fa shtill sei, un en zeit fa shvetza.
  2. Still (as in up to and even now, continuing) = alsnoch
    Vi vissa miah es di eahvet alsnoch results hott?
  3. Still (to come; yet) = noch
    Miah henn noch may fa du.
    (See also after)
  4. Still (as in after all, even so) = doch
    Miah sinn funn alli sadda leit avvah es dutt uns doch nett diveiyda.

Stone noun = da shtay

  • Stones noun = di shtay plural

Story noun = di shtoahri

  • Stories noun = di shtoahris plural

Straight = grawt (see also words, exactly and immediately)
Hald oh grawt faddi noch da stop sign.

Strength noun = di graft
Eah is da vann es uns graft gebt.

Stubble noun = da shtubbel (unshaven facial hair; the whole)

  • Stubbles noun = di shtubla plural (individual hairs)

Study noun = da shtoddi
Bivvel shtoddi
Vatshtavvah Shtoddi

Study verb = shtodya

  • (ich) shtoddi (used also in commands)
    Shtoddi di bichah mitt uns.
  • (du) shtoddisht
  • (eah/see/es) shtoddit
  • (miah) shtodya
  • (diah) shtodyet
  • (si) shtodya
  • Studied verb = kshtoddit past tense

Study adj = shtoddi
shtoddi article

Stuff noun = es shtoft
Du kansht diffand shtoft daunlohda…
Neiy shtoft funn da shtoah.

Stumble verb = stombla

  • Stumbled verb = kstombeld past tense

Stumbled adj = kstombeld

Subject noun = da subject

Such = so (when emphasizing something)
Fido is so en aldah hund.

Such / Suchlike = so (when referring to things that have already been mentioned)
Gott is nett di shuld funn earthquakes, shlimm veddah… Feel funn’s soffahres heit kumd funn so sacha.

Suffer verb = soffahra

Suffering noun = soffahres

Support noun = da support

Support verb = supporda

Surcingle noun = da bauch-gatt (belt or strap that goes under horse’s stomach to hold a saddle or pack to horse’s back)
Mach shuah da bauch-gatt teit is.

Sure enough phrase = Shuah genunk

Sympathize verb = mitt-leida (to have fellow feeling for someone)

Synchronize verb = sinkraneiysa

  • Synchronized verb = sinkraneiysd past tense

Synchronized adj = sinkraneiysd (used with sei or vadda)


Talk noun = da talk (as in a speech or presentation)

Talk verb = shvetza (as in to talk; not to be confused with talk (noun))

Teach verb = teetsha

  • (eah/see/es) teetsht
  • (miah) teetsha
  • (diah) teetshet
  • (si) teetsha
  • Taught = geteetsht past tense

Teacher noun = da teacher

Teaching Toolbox noun = di Teaching Toolbox

Teaching noun = di teetshing

  • Teachings noun = di teetshings plural

Technology Words

  • Download verb = daunlohda
    • (ich) daunloht
    • (miah) daunlohda
    • (si) daunlohda
  • Log in verb = log nei
  • Look under… = Gukk unnich (when explaining where to find something on a website or a section in a book)
  • Print verb = prinda
    • Printed = geprind past tense
  • Send verb = shikka
  • Share verb = sherra
    Sherra bei email.
  • Synchronized verb = sinkraneiysd past tense
  • Tap verb = drikka
    • (ich) drikk
    • (miah) drikka
    • (si) drikka
    • Tap on / Press on = drikk uf (as a command, conjugated to ich)
      • or Tap there = drikk druff (as in a command, conjugated to ich)
  • Watch the video = vatsh da video
  • Website noun = da website

Tear verb

  • Tear verb / Rip verb = fareisa (to rip or create a tear in something)
    Fareis ‘s paytsh.
    • (ich) fareis
    • (du) fareisht
    • (eah/see/es) fareist
    • (miah) fareisa
    • (diah) fareiset
    • (si) fareisa
    • Torn verb / Ripped verb = farissa past tense
      (Compare with torn (adj).)
      Ich habb mei hemm farissa.
  • Tear (down or apart) verb
    • Tear down (and trash it) = nunnah reisa or zammah reisa
      Vella gay selli sheiyah zammah reisa.
      • (ich) reis
      • (du) reisht
      • (eah/see/es) reist
      • (miah) reisa
      • (diah) reiset
      • (si) reisa
    • Tear down (take apart piece by piece / disassemble) verb = farobba
      Ich zayld di puzzle alles farobba.
      • Torn down verb = farobt past tense
        Ich habb alles farobt.
  • Tear at verb / Remove verb / Rip it out verb / Pull at hard verb = reisa (to remove it)
    • Tore at verb / Removed verb / Pulled at hard = grissa past tense
      Eah hott da poshta raus grissa.

Tell verb = sawwa (same as say)
—Compare with to tell a story; narrate

  • (ich) sawk
  • (du) sawksht
  • (eah/see/es) sawkt
  • (miah) sawwa
  • (diah) sawwet
  • (si) sawwa
  • Told verb = ksawt past tense (not fazayld)

Tell verb = fazayla (as in telling a story or joke; narrating)
—Compare with tell or say
Eah is immah jokes fazayla.
Fazayl mich en shtoahri.

  • (ich) fazayl
  • (du) fazaylsht
  • (eah/see/es) fazayld
  • (miah) fazayla
  • (diah) fazaylet
  • (si) fazayla
  • Told (a joke or story) verb = fazayld past tense

Tempted adj = getempt (often with sei or vadda)

Terrible adj = shlimm (awful)
—Compare with more intense versions worse and worst.

Than = es (used to introduce the second element in a comparison)
Da vann es di keah gmacht hott, hott may veisheit es miah henn.


  • no (used to show time)
    Lays es buch, un no shvetza veyyich vass miah lanna.
  • dann (when talking about a result that comes from something else, for that reason, as a consequence)
    Vann du dusht, dann zayld see dei friend sei.


  • There adv = datt (location away from the speaker; opposite of here.)
    Da hund is datt drivva.
  • There pro = es (“filler” pronoun; often at the start of a sentence or thought. Usually with a form of sei or voahra following.)
    Es is nett genunk ess-sach in’s haus.

Thinking noun = denkes (as in the way a person thinks; opinion, viewpoint)
—See also Thank, think, thinking language lesson
Di veld iahra denkes is letz!

This time = dessamohl
Avvah dessamohl, voahra sacha diffand.

Thought noun = da thought
Sell is en goodah thought.

  • Thoughts noun = di gedanka plural
    Vi kenna miah vekk bleiva funn letzi gedanka un aekshins?

Tidy up verb = ufrohma

  • Tidied up verb = ufgrohmd past tense
    Si henn ’s haus ufgrohmd eb di fasamling.

Tidy / Tidied up adj = ufgrohmd
’S haus is so sauvah un ufgrohmd.


  • Time noun = di zeit (time of day, time period)
    Nemm zeit fa di bichah laysa alli dawk.
    • Times noun = di zeida plural (period of time)
      See kamfirt een deich haddi zeida
  • Time noun = es moll (not mohl) (this time, next time, last time, once)
    Denk moll veyyich dess.
    S’ neksht moll
  • Every time = alli-moll (not mohl)
  • Sometimes = daylmohls or alsamohl

Times of Day

  • Today = heit
  • Tomorrow = meiya
  • This afternoon = dinochmidawk
  • This evening = dinohvet
  • This forenoon = difammidawk
  • This mid-day = dimiddawk
  • Morning = meiya
  • This morning = dimeiyet
  • Early morning = meiya free
  • Tomorrow morning = meiya free
  • Last night = geshtrohvet
  • Tonight / this evening = dinohvet (some natives shorten it to dinoh’t)
  • Yesterday = geshtah

 Time flies phrase = Zeit gayt on.


  • fa (generally used with a verb)
    Vi fa problems ausshaffa.
  • zu (generally used right before a noun)
    Vi kann ma naychah kumma zu anri?
  • ditzu (used after the subject has been mentions)
    • Ditzu is often pronounced with the emphasis on the zu. You could think of it as: d’zu, da’zu)

For other uses for the word fa, see also the dictionary and the words For and Kind of for additional meanings.

Tobacco noun = da doowak (not doovak or duahk)

Today = heit (See also Times of day)

Tomorrow = meiya (See also Times of day)

Tomorrow morning = meiya free (See also Times of day)

Tonight = dinohvet (See also Times of day)

Too bad = shawt
Sell is shawt!

Torn adj = farissa (use with form of sei or vadda)
Mei rokk is farissa.

Tough time phrase = tuffi zeit (as in a difficult, rough period of time; similar to haddi zeit)

Tract noun = da tract

Train verb = trayna

  • Trained verb = getraynd past tense

Translate verb = trenslayda

  • Translated verb = getrenslayt past tense

Translation noun = trenslayshin

Trash noun = es trash

Treat verb = treeda

  • (ich) treet
  • (eah/see/es) treet
  • (miah) treeda
  • (si) treeda
  • Treated verb = getreet past tense

Trials noun = di trials

Tricked adj = getrikt (as in fooled; use with sei or vadda)

Trust noun = es trost

Trust verb = trosta or drauwa

  • (miah) trosta
  • (diah) trostet
  • (si) trosta
  • Trusted verb = getrost past tense

Trusted adj = getrost (as in dependable; use with sei or vadda)
Veis es du getrost sei kansht.

Try verb = boviahra (not broviahra)

  • (ich) boviah
  • (du) boviahsht
  • (eah/see/es) boviaht
  • (miah) boviahra
  • (diah) boviahret
  • (si) boviahra
  • Tried verb = boviaht past tense
    Vi hott da boo boviaht da Frank macha ufgevva?

Try it out verb = ausboviahra
Ich habb en neiyah tool gekawft. Reddi fa’s ausboviahra?

Turn down verb = nunnah drayya (to say no to something) (conjugate drayya to the noun or pronoun)
Du nunnah draysht may rawm boi.

  • Turned down verb = nunnah gedrayt past tense
    Ich habb da offer nunnah gedrayt.

Type of / Kind of / Sort of = fa
Vass fa challenges hott da Bryan katt?

For other uses for the word fa, see also the dictionary and the words For and Kind of for additional meanings.


Under it / beneath it = unna droh
Gukk an di piktahs un vass’s sawkt unna droh.

Unharness verb = abkshadda (take off an animal’s harness)

Unhitch verb = ausshpanna (an animal from a buggy or implement)

  • Unhitched verb = auskshpand past tense

Unhitched adj = auskshpand
Is da donkey auskshpand?

Unless = unni
(See also without)
Unni’s shunsht sawkt sinn di vadda gnumma funn dee buch.

Upbuild verb = ufbauwa

Upload verb = uplohda


  • uns (when talking to a group)
  • em (more personal; when having a conversation with someone)

Use verb = yoosa

  • (ich) yoos
  • (eah/see/es) = yoost
  • (miah) yoosa
  • (si) yoosa
  • used verb = gyoost past tense

Used adj = gyoost
En trap is gyoost fa ess-sach greeya.

Used to verb = gvayna (as in to get accustomed to) (present)
Sell’s ebbes es miah gvayna missa.

  • Used to verb = gegvaynd (gotten accustomed to) past tense (often with a form of voahra)
    Fa veit vekk zeeya funn haym maynd fleicht zufridda sei mitt vennichah es ma gegvaynd voah.

Used to adj = gegvaynd (to be accustomed to) (use with a form of sei or vadda)
Mei bukkel is nett gegvaynd zu sell bett.

User noun = yoosah

Username noun = yoosah nohma


Verse noun = es verse / ’s verse

  • da feahsht (older term)

Verses noun = di verses plural

  • di feahshta (older term)

Very (or pretty much) = adlich

Video noun = da video

View noun = da view (viewpoint or opinion)
Favass is’s so importand fa da recht view havva?

View verb = mayna (to have a viewpoint or opinion)
— Compare with ohgukka
’S mensht leit mayna es is.

  • (ich) mayn
  • (du) maynsht
  • (eah/see/es) maynd
  • (miah) mayna
  • (diah) maynet
  • (si) mayna
  • Viewed verb = gmaynd past tense
    Ich habb gmaynd alli-ebbah voah feah am getreet vadda, avvah ich habb glei auskfunna sell is nett voah.

View verb = ohgukka (to look at something in a certain way)
— Compare with mayna
Boviah sacha ohgukka vi dei partner dutt.

  • Viewed verb = ohgegukt past tense

Vote verb = vohta


War noun = da war

  • Wars noun = di wars plural

Warning noun = da warning

Wasted verb = gwayst past tense
Du hosht en latt gwayst!

Wasted adj = gwayst
So feel ess-sacha is gwayst.

Watch verb = vatsha

  • (ich) vatsh
  • (eah/see/es) = vatsht
  • (miah) vatsha
  • (si) vatsha

The Watchtower (magazine) noun = Da Vatshtavvah

Weather noun = es veddah
Miah henn samm shay veddah katt.

Weekend noun = da weekend

Weird adj = weird

  • weirdi (with f nouns)
  • weird (with neu nouns)

When = vann (See also Eb vs Vann language lesson)

Whether = eb (when talking about 2 possible options or outcomes; not to be confused with if) (See also Eb vs Vann language lesson) (Compare with before)
Di Donna vill vissa eb du hinkel-flaysh adda fish vitt.

Which (one) (as in one in particular)

  • Which (one) = vellah (with m nouns)
    Vellah hoot gleichsht du’s besht?
  • Which (one/s) = velli (with f and pl nouns)
    Velli promises gleichsht du’s besht?
  • Which (one) = vels (with neu nouns; when used with funn)
    Da nohma sawkt vels buch in di library.
    Vels funn dee songs gleichsht du’s besht?

While = veil
Du zaylsht en latt may lanna veil’s miah mitt-nannah shvetza veyyich di lessons.

Will be verb = (eah/see/es) vatt
Nimmand vatt kfrohkt fa geld.

Will be given verb = (eah/see/es) vatt gevva
’Sis zvay-dawk lang un vatt gevva bei di organizers.

Willing adj = willing (not villing)

Wisdom noun = es wisdom / di veisheit

Wish verb = vodda
Ich vott s’veah Samshdawk so’s miah gay kenna ebbel geddahra.

  • (ich) vott
  • (du) votsht
  • (eah/see/es) = vott
  • (miah) vodda
  • (diah) voddet
  • (si) vodda
  • Wished verb = gvott past tense

Without = unni
(See also unless)

Witness noun = da witness
Es voahra feel leit funn lang zrikk es en witness gevva henn veyyich iahra glawva.
Veah is da besht witness?

Witness verb = witnesa
Vi kenna miah patient sei vann miah witnesa zu em sei family?

Women noun = di veibsleit plural

Wonder verb = vunra

  • Wondered verb = gvunnaht past tense

Wondering verb = am vunra

Work noun = di eahvet (the place and type of work)

Work verb = shaffa (action of doing work)

Workbook (Life & Ministry Workbook) noun = es Ministry un Layva Fasamling Workbuch

Work out verb = aus shaffa

  • (eah/see/es) aus shaft
    …en blatz un zeit es’s besht aus shaft fa dich.
  • (miah) aus shaffa
  • (si) aus shaffa

Worn out adj = ausgvoahra
Mei glaydah gukka ausgvoahra.

Worries noun = di wohris plural

Worry verb = wohriya

  • Worried verb = gwohrit past tense

Worried adj = gwohrit (often with sei or vadda)

Worse adj = shlimmah (more terrible or awful)

  • Worst adj (most terrible or awful)
    • shlimsht (with neu nouns)
    • shlimshtah (with m nouns)
    • shlimshti (with f and pl nouns)

Worthwhile adj = diveaht
’S mecht en latt effort nemma, avvah es zayld diveaht sei.

Would verb = dayda

Would be verb = veahra

  • (du) veahsht
  • (eah/see/es) veah
    Es veah goot vann du di kee feedra daytsht dimeiya.
  • (miah) veahra
  • (si) veahra

Would have verb = hedda

Would have to / would need to verb = mista
Ich mist een frohwa eb miah en decision macha.

  • (ich) mist
  • (miah) mista
  • (si) mista

Would want verb = vedda

  • (ich) vett
  • (du) vetsht
  • (eah/see/es) vett
  • (miah) vedda
  • (diah) veddet
  • (si) vedda

Wrinkly adj = runslich
Vann du shmohksht, zayld dei haut runslich vadda.



Yard noun

  1. da hohf noun (location)
  2. da yoaht noun (measurement, 36 inches)


  1. yes = yau (to agree; opposite of no) (most common)
  2. yes = yo (definitely yes or absolutely yes; for emphasis)
  3. yes = yo (actually yes; used when responding to a question or statement where the other person assumes the answer is no)

💡 For more information and examples of how to use the different types of yesread the post yau and yo.

Yesterday = geshtah (See also Times of day)

Yet = noch (as of yet; at the present time)
(Not to be confused with still)
Hosht du keaht funn da Mervin? Noch nett.
Di mail is noch nett do.

You pro

  1. you = du (doer of the action)
    Du kansht di ensahs finna.
  2. you = dich (receiver of the action)
    Ich helf dich.
  3. you = diah (you plural; as in, y’all)
    Diah sind labbich!

Young (people) noun = di yungi plural (can be used alone)
Di yungi sinn am shpeela.

Young adj = yung (with neuter nouns)

  • yungah (with m nouns)
  • yungi (with f and pl nouns)

Younger (people) noun = di yingahri plural (can be used alone)
Di eldri sinn dankboah fa di yingahri iahra hilf.

Younger adj = yingah (with neuter nouns)

  • yingahrah (with m nouns)
  • yingahri (with f and pl nouns)

Yours pro = dein (possessive pronoun; used only without another noun)

Dein is an independent possessive pronoun. It is only used when there’s no other noun. Otherwise, use dei (your) when mentioning a noun.

Mei nohma is Ayden. Vass is dein?


Zeal noun = zeal (not eahnsht)

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Note: This page is not a part of or endorsed by jw.org in any way. It is simply a glossary and Pennsylvania Dutch dictionary for language learning. Some example sentences used on this page may contain partial quotes from sentences publicly available on jw.org and wol.jw.org/pdc. All such content is copyright Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania and jw.org and used here under fair use. Any quotes from the Bible are from The Heilich Shrift, by Wycliffe Bible Translators, Inc.